Rosemary is a shrubby perennial evergreen plant of the Lamiaceae family.
It is characterized by a powerful root system that allows it to thrive in arid terrain and poor soils. The tree is shrubby branched, the branches are stunted and partly laid. Shrubs in continental regions, reach a height of 0.8-1.5m, and in coastal areas over 2m. Rosemary is a warm climate plant and requires a lot of light. Therefore, it should be grown on sunny and windproof areas. In the continental region, it tolerates moderate cold and winters without major damage, but freezes at very low temperatures (-15 ° C and below). Wet soil and underwater terrain are not recommended for this plant. Rosemary can be propagated by seed through the production of seedlings. This propagation method is not widely applied because of poor seed germination. For this reason, propagation by cuttings is recommended.
Rosemary planting is done during the fall or early spring. Rosemary exploration begins in the second year of cultivation. Harvesting is done by cutting young shoots at a height of 10 cm above the ground. Old plantings are harvested by hand by cutting only young twigs above the woody part. Drying or distillation immediately after harvesting. Green leaves contain 0.4-0.6% of essential oil. Dried leaves have up to 2% of oil. Drugs, dried leaves, in addition to oils, also contain heteroids, polyphenols, glucosides and other compounds. The essential oil contains cineole, pipenic, camphor, borneol, and has rosmarinic acid, up to 8%. Rosemary leaf is used as a tea to improve digestion, against stomach problems. The leaves are also used as a valued spice in culinary. Essential oil is a part of a range of preparations used as antiseptic, antirheumatic for strengthening hair roots, etc. In veterinary medicine, essential oil is used against parasites, against hair loss, etc.
There are four rosemary essential oil chemotypes. The cineol hemotype grows in North Africa, the verbenone / bornyl acetate chemotype comes from Corsica, the camphor chemotype is typical of Dalmatia, and the ß-mircene / camphor chemotype comes from the Atlantic coast.